Reduced diaphragmatic excursion / expansion / descend

DEFNITION: The evaluation of the expansion or descend of the diaphragm on full inspiration. CAUSES: Reduced diaphragmatic expansion may have local or distal aetiologies. Local aetiologies include muscle spasm of the diaphragm (sub-phrenic absence, gastric irritation, cardiac and pericardial associations, perforating ulcers, hernias and other causes. Distal causes include lesions of the phrenic nerve which … Continue reading Reduced diaphragmatic excursion / expansion / descend

Pleural effusion and shifted mediastinum

DEFINITION: A condition where an abnormal amount of fluid accumulates in inter-pleural space (the potential space between the visceral and parietal membranes). Usually this is serous fluid but can also be blood and rarely other types of fluids. CAUSES: In most cases the cause of the fluid accumulation is due to heart failure. Other causes … Continue reading Pleural effusion and shifted mediastinum

Enlarged supraclavicular lymph nodes – lymphadenopathy

DEFINITION: Lymphadenopathy is a term implying an abnormal or diseased state of the lymph nodes. CAUSES: The supraclavicular lymph nodes are located above the clavicles in the supraclavicular fossa. They drain intrathoracic structures including the lungs and part of the gastric region. The left supraclavicular lymph nodes drain the left lungs and the lower lobe … Continue reading Enlarged supraclavicular lymph nodes – lymphadenopathy

Tracheal deviation and shifted mediastinum

DEFINITION: The deviation of the trachea when palpated in the neck area. CAUSES: The trachea can be shifted from its mid-line position in neck by factors that either push it to the opposite side of factors that pull it to the same side. Usually these influences are based in the mediastinal and lung areas. Pneumothorax … Continue reading Tracheal deviation and shifted mediastinum

Pneumothorax, collapsed lung

DEFINITION: The collection of air between the parietal and visceral pleurae. CAUSES: Collapsed lung or pneumothorax can be caused either spontaneously or due to pathology. Causes of pneumothorax include injuries like knife wounds, fractured ribs, by a medical needle or by the damaging processes of disease like COPD, asthma, connective tissue disease, cystic fibrosis, and … Continue reading Pneumothorax, collapsed lung

Bronchoconstriction with mucous and Inflammation

DEFINITION: Bronchoconstriction is a reversible or functional narrowing of the bronchioles. CAUSES: Often as a result of asthma allergies, or other irritants. The narrowing may be as a result of smooth muscle constriction or from the secretion and accumulation of mucus. It can also be brought on by exposure to extreme and fast temperature changes … Continue reading Bronchoconstriction with mucous and Inflammation

Percussion of the Thorax

Definition: Percussion of the thorax attempts to examine the quality of intra-thoracic contents by evaluating the quality of sounds produced. Test procedure: There are two methods; direct and indirect. Over a bony prominence such as the clavicles percussion can be done directly. Over soft tissues firmly place your middle finger of your non dominant hand … Continue reading Percussion of the Thorax